Private Vs Public Vs Hybrid Vs Multi Cloud

What is a cloud?

“Cloud” refers to the servers available over the Internet, software and information that controls those servers. Cloud servers are available in data centers around the world. With cloud computing, users and companies are not required to manage their own portable servers or run software on their cloud devices.

Fig 1 : Cloud Computing [8]

Cloud enables users to access the same files and applications on almost any of the device, because computer and storage occur on servers in the data center, instead of locally on the user’s device. That’s why a user logs into his or her Instagram account on a new phone after exiting his or her phone and finds his or her old account in place, with all their photos, videos, and chat history. It works the same way with cloud email providers like Gmail or Microsoft Office 365, and cloud storage providers like Dropbox or Google Drive.

How does cloud computing work?

Fig 2 : Cloud computing [8]

Cloud computing is possible due to a technology called virtualization. Virtualization allows for the creation of a digital-enabled “digital” computer that only behaves like a virtual computer with its own hardware. The technical name of such a computer is a visual aid. Used properly, virtual machines on the same Host machine are sandboxed from each other, so they do not mix at all, and files and applications of the same virtual machine are not visible on other virtual machines even on the same physical machine.

Visual devices also make good use of Hardware that holds them. By using multiple virtual machines simultaneously, one server becomes multiple servers, and the data center becomes a host of data centers, capable of serving multiple organizations. Therefore, cloud providers could offer the use of their servers to more customers at the same time than they would otherwise be able to use, and they could do so at a lower cost.

What are the main types of cloud computing resources?

Fig 3 : What is Cloud computing ? [10]

· Software-as-a-Service (SaaS): Instead of users installing an application on their device, SaaS applications are hosted on cloud servers, and users access them via the Internet. SaaS is like renting a house.

· Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS): In this model, companies do not pay for hosted requests; instead they pay for the things they need to build their own applications. PaaS vendors provide everything you need to build an app, including development tools, infrastructure, and applications, via the Internet.

· Infrastructure-like a-Service (IaaS): In this model, the company hires the servers and storage you need from a cloud provider. Then they use that cloud infrastructure to build their applications .IaaS is like a company that rents a place where they can build whatever they want ..

· Function-as-a-Service (FaaS): FaaS, also known as non-computing computile , breaks cloud applications into very small components that only work when needed. Imagine if it were possible to rent a house a little at a time.

What are the different types of cloud deployments?

In contrast to the aforementioned models, which explain how services are provided by the cloud, these different types of cloud deployment are related to where the cloud servers are located and who owns them.

Fig 4 : Cloud Deployement models [9]

The most common cloud shipping is:

1. Private cloud

A private cloud is also called as an internal cloud or a corporate cloud .The private cloud provides computer services to the private network (within the organization) and selected users on behalf of the general public. The private cloud offers a high level of security and privacy to data through fire protection and internal hosting. It also ensures that performance and sensitive data are not available to third-party providers. HP Data Centers, Microsoft, the independent Elastra cloud, and Ubuntu are examples of a private cloud.

Fig 5 : Private Cloud [13]

How do Private clouds work?

Independent clouds depend on a variety of small technologies, but understanding how virtualization works is key to understanding how independent clouds work. The private cloud uses virtualization technology to integrate resources acquired from virtual Hardware into shared pools. In this way, the cloud does not have to create spaces by making resources one at a time from a wide range of different body systems. A written IT process can only capture all those resources in one source — like a big data store.

Adding a layer of administrative software provides administrative management of platforms, platforms, applications and data to be used in the cloud by helping cloud tracking and optimizing usage, managing integration points, and storing or retrieving data. With the installation of the automatic default layer to replace or reduce human interaction with duplicate commands and procedures, the automated component of the cloud is complete and that a lot of technology has now become a private secret.

Manage Private Cloud

With private clouds, you are totally responsible for all costs at all times. You operate, manage, and maintain all basic infrastructure. But private clouds can also be delivered by cloud providers as part of a private managed cloud system.

Managed private cloud allows customers to create and use a private cloud that is used, configured, and managed by a third party vendor. It is a cloud delivery service that helps businesses with inefficient or untrained IT teams to provide better independent cloud services and infrastructure to users without the daily hassle of managing the private cloud itself.

Pros :

There are the following benefits of Private Cloud -

1) More Control — Private clouds have more power to manage their resources and hardware than public clouds because they are only available to selected users.

2) Security and privacy — Security and privacy are one of the great benefits of cloud computing. Private cloud has improved the level of security compared to public cloud.

3) Improved performance — An independent cloud provides better performance with improved speed and space power.

Cons :

1) High cost — Costs are higher than public cloud because setting up and maintaining hardware resources is expensive.

2) Limited operating area — As we know, the private cloud is available within the organization, so the workspace is limited.

3) Moderate failure — Independent clouds are measured only within internal resources.

4) Skilled people — Skilled people need to manage and use cloud services.

2. Public Cloud

A public cloud is a type of computer where a service provider makes services available to the public online. Resources vary by provider but may include storage capacity, applications or virtual equipment. The public cloud allows for the distribution and sharing of resources that would not otherwise be possible for one organization to benefit.

Fig 6 : Public Cloud [17]

Some public cloud providers offer iservices free of charge, iwhile clients pay for other services by subscription or by-use usage model. Cloud services are available to individual users, and pricing depends on the needs of the user’s resources. Organizations with a large amount of data need to develop a cloud migration strategy before choosing a cloud vendor.

How is a Public cloud created?

The public cloud allows users to share resources while maintaining the privacy of individual user data. Public cloud construction is done entirely, providing an environment where shared resources are used when needed.

The biggest advantage of public cloud computing is the ability to access a service or application on any device connected to the Internet. Because the device itself does not perform multiple calculations, people can use complex programs almost anywhere.

The public cloud is usually designed with built-in demolition to prevent data loss. The service provider can store duplicate files in multiple data centers to ensure that disaster recovery is smooth and fast. Information stored on a public cloud platform is generally considered to be safe from most risks.

The Pros and Cons of a public cloud


1)Cost savings: — Moving to a public cloud is a way for companies to reduce the cost of IT operations. In fact, they charge a fee to the third party who can handle it. Public clouds are also less expensive than private clouds, because the cloud provider is able to maximize their hardware usage and profit by selling their services to multiple customers at the same time.

2) Minimal server management: — When an organization uses a public cloud, internal groups do not have to spend time managing the servers — as they do in built-in data centers or in private private cloud.

3)Security: — Many small and medium-sized businesses may not have the resources to create robust security measures. By using a public cloud service, they can transfer other cyber security features to a larger provider with more resources.


1)Security and compliance concerns: — Too many activities can be detrimental to businesses that need to meet strict compliance. Multitenancy also has a very small risk of data leaks, which can be much more dangerous than other businesses in specialized sectors willing to tolerate.

2)Vendorilock-in: — This is always a problem with cloud technology. An organization that uses the cloud will save money and become more flexible, but it can also end up reliant upon the cloud vendor’s services — the virtual machines, storage, applications, and technologies they provide — in order to maintain their business operations.

3. Hybrid Cloud

Hybrid cloud is a solution that combines a private cloud with one or more public cloud services, with proprietary software enabling communication between each distinct service. A hybrid cloud strategy provides businesses with greater flexibility by moving workloads between cloud solutions as needs and costs fluctuate.

Fig 7 : Hybrid cloud [24]

Hybrid cloud services are powerful because they give businesses greater control over their private data. An organization can store sensitive data on a private cloud or local data center and simultaneously leverage the robust computational resources of a managed public cloud. A hybrid cloud relies on a single plane of management, unlike a multi-cloud strategy wherein admins must manage each cloud environment separately.

Hybrid cloud architecture

Uniform management of public and private cloud resources is preferable to individually managing cloud environments because doing so reduces the likelihood of process redundancies. Separately managed environments increase the risk of security loopholes if each solution is not fully optimized to work with the others.Hybrid architecture best practices eliminate many security risks by limiting the exposure of private data to the public cloud.

Hybrid cloud infrastructure generally includes a public infrastructure as a service (IaaS) platform, a private cloud or data center and access to a secure network. Many hybrid models leverage local area networks (LAN) as well as wide area networks (WAN).

Businesses adopting a hybrid strategy typically start with an IaaS solution and extend functionalities to the private cloud. To deploy a hybrid strategy effectively, the public and private clouds must be compatible with each other so they can communicate. In many cases, the private cloud is constructed to be compatible with the public solution.


(1)Flexibility — One of the main advantages of the hybrid cloud is its flexibility. Because this model allows the enterprise to direct its resources to private and public cloud computing environments quickly, it becomes easier to evaluate how to best structure a set of IT solutions that are based on cloud computing.

(2)Scalability and Deployment — The hybrid cloud makes it possible to set up a modular system according to your needs.If you need to perform very large data analytics, the hybrid cloud provides better resource allocation and avoids investing in hundreds or even thousands of servers and storage devices.

(3)Speed — Hybrid cloud enables organizations to move faster to DevOps — a set of practices for integrating development, operations, and analytic teams.By connecting infrastructures, you can achieve faster software performance. This allows developers to focus on creating solutions and products.

(4)Increased Mobility — A hybrid cloud can also bring mobility to the business. As resources become available over the web to all users, the company can flex its routines without losing competitiveness.

(5)Increased Data Security — Hybrid cloud enhances system security and reliability by allowing sensitive information to be stored in a private environment. Protection against physical attacks is enhanced because the information is divided into multiple data centers.


(1)Difficult to Implement — It can indeed be complex to implement and difficult to maintain. For example, setting up a private cloud can be a remarkably difficult project in itself since it requires a strong demand for local infrastructures, such as servers, storage, and network capabilities.

(2)In-house Expenses — It actually has the disadvantage of being much more expensive than the public cloud. The cost that accompanies the installation and the maintenance of servers is high.

(3)Security Concerns due to 3rd Party Involvement — As the hybrid cloud is a combination of both public and private clouds. There is no risk of intrusion between neighbors on a public network, but misuse of the infrastructure contracted by another company can put yours at risk as a successful attack on the main server opens a breach for each client’s system.

(4)Compatibility and Data Integration — Compatibility between files used in the private cloud and the public cloud can be a big headache when using a hybrid cloud.If this is the strategy you are plotting, make sure you have the software in place to run all types of files on both platforms and also to convert files for security.

(5)Visibility — With your resources and information placed across private and public-based cloud network, you sometimes tend to lose sight of the wholesome view of all the information.This can get much more complicated if you’re using multiple 3rd party cloud providers.

4. Multicloud

Multicloud is a type of cloud distribution that involves the use of multiple public clouds. In other words, an organization with multicloud distribution leases virtual servers and services from several external vendors — continuing with the analogy used above, this is similar to renting nearby plots of land for various homeowners. Multicloud deployment can also be a hybrid cloud, and vice versa.

Fig : 8 Multi-cloud [25]


(1) Risk Reduction: if one of your cloud providers has a temporary issue or failure, your total performance will decrease at that specific time. But with a multi-cloud strategy you can switch into another vendor

(2) Find the best-in-class multi-cloud providers at competitive pricing: the number of cloud service providers has increased significantly over the last few years. When some of the policies of a single provider don’t match your organisation, you can simply compare different providers and select the best offer that suits you the most. This way you achieve a high level of agility.

(3) Automation & Scalability: regardless of how much data you work with, with a multi-cloud strategy you can store all of them. On the other hand, a multi-cloud strategy helps organisations to coordinate disparate workloads and manage hybrid workflows.

(4) Robust Security: cloud providers are responsible for their own security of their infrastructures, so they can ensure that they have all the capabilities for protecting your data.


(1) Talent Management: Cloud specialists are in high demand. Cloud architects and engineers with experience of a single cloud provider are difficult to find. However, hiring experts who have the expertise of multiple clouds is next to impossible.

(2) Cost Estimation and Reporting : While using multiple vendors can save you money, costs estimation and consolidation gets more complicated. Since every cloud provider has different costs for each service, you’ll need a clear grasp of the pricing structure of every cloud.

(3) Security Risks : If you work with just one provider managing data security, it doesn’t cause any trouble. Storing your data on multiple clouds introduces complexity meaning it will be harder to protect your data and prevent leakage.


Table 1 : Difference Between Private , Public and Hybrid cloud


If your company prefers an easy-to-use cloud infrastructure, fast service deployment, and a pay-as-you-go pricing model, then public cloud is a better choice for you. For example, it’s quite common to use it for testing or development.

But if your company wants customization, security, lower risks and can afford infrastructure development and scaling as the business requirements grow, then consider going for private cloud. For example, many organizations migrate their business-critical systems to private clouds.

In any case, when choosing between cloud deployment models, you need to take the IT strategy of your company into account. And keep in mind that the optimal cloud infrastructure for an enterprise is often a combination of private and public models.

both hybrid and multi-cloud ‘strategies’ offer organisations the precision to provide business services in an efficient and effective way. While planning for cloud adoption for any workload, or while migrating to a new cloud, consider the various pros and cons and best practices.

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Authors: Astitva Ghanmode,Kartik Tiwari,Shruti Nikam,Omkar Dalwai,Swati Chim

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